Helen Singer Kaplan February 6, — August 17, was an Austrian-American sex therapist and the founder of the first clinic in the United States for sexual disorders established at a medical school. The New York Times described Kaplan as someone who was "considered a leader among scientific-oriented sex therapists. She was noted for her efforts to combine some of the insights and techniques of psychoanalysis with behavioral methods. The main purpose of her dissertation is to evaluate the psychosexual dysfunctions because these syndromes are among the most prevalent, worrying and distressing medical complaints of modern times. Kaplan was born in Vienna , Austria , on February 6,
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Psychopathology and Personality Traits of Pedophiles
Several sex researchers have outlined the various physiological changes that both men and women undergo when they are sexually stimulated. The sequence of changes and patterns that take place in the body during sexual arousal is referred to as the sexual response cycle. We will discuss two of the most prominent models. William Masters and Virginia Johnson are two sexologists that we discussed previously. Their sex response cycle is the most widely cited, and is one of their most important contributions to the field. Masters and Johnson's 4-phase model of sexual response identifies the significant stages of response. The plateau stage is described as when sexual tension levels off.
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Sexual and Reproductive Health
The Dual Control Model of Sexual Response reflects the idea that sexual response in individuals is the product of a balance between excitatory and inhibitory processes. An ever-growing number of studies show that these two systems operate somewhat independently of each other and that their sensitivities vary from person to person. The researchers liken it to having both a gas pedal excitation or SES and a brake pedal inhibition or SIS in a car - every person will engage one or both pedals to a differing degree in any particular sexual situation, depending on their unique sexual physiology, history, and personality. Using these questionnaires, researchers around the world are applying the Dual Control Model to better understand such complex issues as sexual difficulties, sexual compulsivity, sexual aggression, and high-risk sexual behaviors. Prior studies have found that while sexual inhibition plays an important protective role in reducing sexual responses in the face of threat or danger, individuals who have high levels of inhibition might be more vulnerable to developing sexual problems, and those with low levels of sexual inhibition may be more likely to engage in sexual behaviors that put themselves or others at risk.
In summary, women's sexual response is characterized as highly variable and influenced by a wide range of determinants, including physiologic, psychosocial, and contextual factors. This complexity is reflected also in the multiple etiologic factors and determinants of sexual problems in women. It is evident in current conceptualizations of normal female sexual response, as presented in this article, in which the circularity and overlap of different components and aspects of sexual response in women are viewed differently from the more linear and invariable trajectory of sexual response in men. It is not surprising, therefore, that treatments that target limited physiologic aspects of women's sexual response, such as PDE-5 inhibitors and other vasoactive agents, have demonstrated little overall effectiveness in treating women's sexual dysfunctions [21, 22].